The uniquely canadian model of Responsible Government characterized by a coalition government formed and directed by 2 prime ministers sitting in the Governor’s Council arose based on the 3rd principle of Responsible GHovernment adopted on september 4, 1841.
This principle states that the rule of government shall be the well-understood wishes and interests of the people, and to guarantee this rule of government, the chief advisers of the Governor must possess the confidence of the representatives of the people.
But section 12 of the Union Act (1840) uniting Upper and Lower Canada entitled both Upper and Lower Canada to an equal number of representatives in the Assembly. Both Upper and Lower Canada thus argued it was entitled to a chief adviser in the Governor’s Council to ensure the rule of government in accordance with their own well-understood wishes and interests.
Lord Elgin accepted this dual politicak structure and requested that both leaders negotiate the representative nature of their Cabinet and a common political platform that would be approved by the majority of the Assembly.
Thus was born the federal nature of the rule of law in Canada.